of the altruistic act may be to increase the average fitness of the altruist's kin. This has become an exciting area in social history, as indicated by a recent workshop organized at the Santa Fe Institute that brought together historians, social scientists, and evolutionary theorists. The trait does not arise from some gene whose effects propagate upward to affect the group as a whole, such as a genetic tendency of individuals to disperse which leads the group to have a widespread geographic distribution, or an ability of individuals to withstand. This powerful and controversial work, with its explicit condemnation of Marxism-Leninism and its emphatic denunciation of unrestrained violence as a means of human liberation, led to an eventual falling out with Sartre and, along with his opposition to the Algerian National Liberation Front, to his. The Novelist as Philosopher. A b "59th Republican Ward Executive Committee Files Criminal Charges Against Cities of Paris and Suburb for 'Glorifying' Infamous Philadelphia Cop-Killer". Embodies three principles." These principles are first, phenotypic variation: "Different individuals in a population have different morphologies, physiologies, and behaviors." Second, differential fitness: "Different phenotypes have different rates of survival and reproduction in different environments." And finally, fitness must be heritable: "There is a correlation. After his fathers death, Camus, his mother, and his older brother moved to Algiers where they lived with his maternal uncle and grandmother in her cramped second-floor apartment in the working-class district of Belcourt.
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But why is it helpful to talk of a group phenotype? In standard dictator games, people appear to be generous, but they might simply be distributing according to what appears to be fair given where the money comes from. The Absurd, then, presents itself in the form of an existential opposition. Alas, by this point, as he painfully realized, the odds of such an outcome were becoming increasingly unlikely. New York: Alfred. It is one thing to induce apparently individually-maladaptive behavior in a lab, but not at all clear that such behavior would be individually-maladaptive under ecologically valid conditions. However, by using the same terms to describe biological and cultural evolutionary processes, we increase the risk of the two processes being confused with one another. So the question becomes: if the theory of biological group selection is so necessary, then why does it seem so much less useful than individual-level theories for predicting how people actually behave? Over the course of his career, Camus examines the Absurd from multiple perspectives and through the eyes of many different charactersfrom the mad Caligula, who is obsessed with the problem, to the strangely aloof and yet simultaneously self-absorbed Meursault, who seems indifferent to it even.